About the Author
Mary Ellen Lepionka of Gloucester is an independent scholar researching the Indigenous history of Essex County from the last Ice Age to around 1700 for a book on the subject. Some chapters have been published on capeannhistory.org. Mary Ellen is a retired college instructor, textbook developer, author, and publisher with a Master’s degree in anthropology from Boston University and post-graduate work at the University of British Columbia. She taught cultural and physical anthropology and world history at Boston University, Vancouver City College, Northeastern University, North Shore Community College, and Salem State College. She participated in salvage archaeology on Great Neck in Ipswich, excavated an Early Iron Age Bantu refuge site in Botswana, and conducted fieldwork in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Mary Ellen also had a career in higher education publishing as a developmental editor of college textbooks. Her book, Writing and Developing Your College Textbook, has been published in a third edition and as an online course by the Text and Academic Authors Association. Articles by Mary Ellen on local Indigenous history appear in the Bulletin of the Massachusetts Archaeological Society, the Journal of the New England Antiquities Research Association, historicipswich.org, enduringgloucester.com, and capeannslavery.org. Some of her slide lectures on Indigenous peoples of Essex County, Massachusetts, have links to their publications or have been posted on You Tube. Contact Mary Ellen at melepionka at comcast dot net.
Index of Works by Mary Ellen Lepionka
Articles in the Bulletin of the Massachusetts Archaeological Society
Free downloads accessible via key word search on Lepionka at: Virtual Commons Bridgewater State University: Lepionka Keyword Search
Fall 2013. 74 (2): 45-92. Unpublished papers on Cape Ann Prehistory.
Spring 2015. 76 (1): 27-42. Evidence of a Native American Solar Observatory on Sunset Hill in Gloucester (with Mark Carlotto).
Spring 2017. 78 (1): 28-40. Algonquian Shellfish Industries on Cape Ann.
Fall 2017. 78 (2): 60-70. Speck in Riverview.
Spring 2018. 79 (1): 11-21. Maritime Archaics in Essex Bay: The Saville and Ellis Collections.
Fall 2018. 79 (2): 65-74. Ancient Pottery from Cape Ann, Essex, and Ipswich, Massachusetts.
Spring-Fall 2020. 81 (1-2): 65-90. Native Agricultural Villages in Essex County: Archaeological and Ethnohistorical Evidence.
Spring-Fall 2022. 83: Predictive Models for Locating Inland and Coastal Villages in Northern Essex and Middlesex Counties, Massachusetts (with Timothy Gondola).
Articles in the Journal of the New England Antiquities Research Association
2021 Making Sense of Human Migration to the Americas, NEARA Journal (Journal of the New England Antiquities Research Association) 54 (1): 22-45.
2022 Spirit Rocks of Cape Ann Part I, NEARA Journal 54 (2): 22-40.
2023 Spirit Rocks of Cape Ann Part II, NEARA Journal 55 (2): 21-39.
11/18/14 Evidence of a Native Solar Observatory in Gloucester, MA (Paper presented at a meeting of the North Shore Chapter of the Massachusetts Archaeological Society, Andover MA)
2016 Not on the Map: The Archaeology of Cape Ann (Presentation at a chapter meeting of the Massachusetts Archaeological Society, Worcester MA)
11/3/17 “Ye Names of Ye Rivers”: The Case for Wanaskwiwam (Paper presented at the 2017 annual meeting of the Eastern States Archaeological Federation, New London CT)
11/11/17 A Native Ceremonial Landscape at Pole Hill, Gloucester, MA (Paper presented at the 2017 annual meeting of the New England Antiquities Research Association, Warwick RI)
4/7/18 Champlain and the Indians: A Drama in 3 Acts (Paper presented at a chapter meeting of the Massachusetts Archaeological Society, Worcester MA)
11/17/18 Some Native Stone Quarries and Mines in Essex County, Massachusetts (Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Massachusetts Archaeological Society, Middleborough MA)
4/13/19 Champlain and the Indians: A Drama in 3 Acts (Paper presented at the 2019 Annual meeting of the Massachusetts Archaeological Society, Middleborough MA)
4/24/19 Un-Erasing Native American History in Massachusetts (Paper presented at the annual Conference of the Massachusetts History Alliance, Worcester MA)
5/3/19 Some Native Stone Quarries and Mines in Essex County, Massachusetts (Paper presented at a conference of the New England Antiquities Research Association, North Stonington CT)
11/5/19 Not by Beringia Alone: A Case for Trans-Arctic Migration to the Americas (Paper presented at the annual meeting of the New England Antiquities Research Association, Warwick RI): https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=s6QEb2YdFdo
11/6/21 Spirit Rocks of Cape Ann (Paper presented at the annual meeting of the New England Antiquities Research Association via Zoom): https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=U1uLF3JklRM.
Published Essays on the Archaeology and Indigenous History of Cape Ann in Local Blogs:
Enduring Gloucester (enduringgloucester.com)
10/31/16 Reckoning Time
5/25/17 Wingawecheek: The Story of a Name
6/13/17 “Ye Names of Ye Rivers” – The Story of Wanaskwiwam, an Indian Village in Riverview
7/10/17 Pole Hill – A Ceremonial Landscape
7/20/17 The Wanaskwiwam Villagers – Where Did They Go?
9/24/17 About the Indians – Why Didn’t We Know?
11/7/17 Appropriations of Native Identity – Pocahontas and the Last Wampanoag
11/13/17 1644 – A Turning Point in Cape Ann History
2/14/18 The Settlement of Cape Ann: What Is the Real Story?
3/14/18 How Did Gloucester’s Founding Shape Its Future?
5/21/18 “Very Fine Cypresses” (Part 5 of The Colonists and Indian Land)
5/22/18 “Portugal Hath Had Many a Mouthful” (Part 6 of Colonists and Indian Land)
[Parts 1 – 4 of The Colonists and Indian Land were published by Historic Ipswich.]
Historic Ipswich (historicipswich.net)
6/7/14 Who Were the Agawam Indians Really?
3/6/17 Living Descendants [of Cape Ann’s Indigenous people]
1/16/18 The Cape Ann Vikings
1/21/18 Native American Influence on English Fashions
2/8/18 Manitou in Context
2/19/18 “That We May Avoid the Least Scrupulo of Intrusion” – Part 1, The Colonists and Indian Land
2/21/18 “Brought to Civility” – The Colonists and Indian Land, Part 2
2/25/18 “Disorder in the Corn Fields” – The Colonists and Indian Land, Part 3
2/27/18 The Tragedy of the Wilderness – The Colonists and Indian land, Part 4
8/6/20 Ancient Prejudice against “the Indians” Persists in Essex County Today
5/24/22 The Story Behind the Story of Wigwam Hill
Roger Conant 400 (conant400.blogspot.com/)
12/3/19 Roger Conant on Cape Ann: Part 1 – The Dorchester Company
2/11/20 Roger Conant on Cape Ann: Part 2 – The Rescue Party
2/18/20 Roger Conant on Cape Ann: Part 3 – Conant at Naumkeag and Salem Village
Interviews and Other
3/1/19 Chocorua – Home of the Water Serpent? From “Chocorua Redux: Revisionist History of a Name”, Chocorua Lake Conservancy Newsletter: Chocorua Redux: Revisionist History of a Name .
2019 “What’s in a Name” series on Algonquian place names in Essex County, for 1623 Studios (local cable television, on You Tube).
2/27/20 Erasure: The Forgotten Native History of Cape Ann and Manchester-by-the-Sea. The Cricket: https://www.thecricket.com/out_and_about/erasure-the-forgotten-nativeamerican-history-of-cape-ann-and-manchester-by-the-sea/article_9b357d90-58c3-11ea-aae0-27f67f601c9f.html.
5/28/20 Fish Brook: A Pawtucket Canoe Route, Voiceovers for a video for the Fish Brook Conservation Committee, Topsfield MA.
11/2/20 “Pawtucket People: Natives of the North Shore”, Raising Your Inner Voice, with Jay Foss, North Shore 104.9 Radio: https://podcasts.apple.com/us/podcast/19-pawtucket-people-natives-of-the-north-shore/id1521602325?i=1000497802972
3/9/21 Their History is Our History: Native Americans on Cape Ann. The Gillnetter, Mila Barry, ed.
8/22/22 “The Morning Show” Interview on the Indigenous history of Essex County, with Mary Jacobson, Newburyport Cable Television: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Uh4_EDEtVOk, https://soundcloud.com/ncmhub/morning-show-with-mary-jacobsen-september-15-2022-mary-ellen-lepionka
3/22 Paragraphs on the Indigenous history of properties in the Essex County Greenbelt Association Land Trust (https://ecga.org/).
10/22 Indigenous History of Places with [Cape Ann] Babson Connections, Babson Historical Association: https://babsonassoc.org/babson-indigenous-history.
March-April, 2022 6-week course, Exploring the Indigenous History of Byfield, Governor’s Academy, (Byfield MA).
July 5, 2023 Wonasquam Village and the Skywatchers, Cape Ann COSMOS: https://www.capeanncosmos.com/gloucester-400-culture-folio/wonasquam-village-and-the-skywatchers.
2017-2023 capeannhistory.org (Chapters for a forthcoming book, Indigenous History of Essex County from the last Ice Age to 1700)
2019-2020 Cape Ann Slavery and Abolition (capeannslavery.org) co-authored with Stephanie Buck for the Cape Ann Slavery and Abolition Trust.
2012 Pawtucket Settlements at Time of Contact: The Case for an Algonquian village on Cape Ann (Annisquam Historical Society, Gloucester MA)
2013 Prehistory of Cape Ann (Gloucester High School)
Cape Ann Indian Trails and Landscapes (Cape Ann Trail Stewards, Gloucester MA)
2014 Erasure: How Cape Ann Indians Got Written out of Existence (Gloucester Writers Center, Gloucester MA)
Treasures of the Annisquam Historical Museum (Annisquam Historical Society, Gloucester MA)
Not on the Map: The Archaeology of Cape Ann (Annisquam Historical Society, Gloucester MA)
Cape Ann Before Columbus (Gloucester High School, Gloucester MA)
Wigwams on Jeffrey’s Creek: Let’s Set the Record Straight (Manchester Historical Museum, Manchester MA)
Prehistory of Cape Ann (Sandy Bay Historical Society, King St., Rockport)
American Indians Lived Here: They Are Part of Our History (O’Maley Innovation Middle School, Gloucester MA)
Ancient Artisans of Cape Ann (Cape Ann Museum, Gloucester MA)
6/7/14 The Archaeology of Dogtown (Gloucester Writers Center, Gloucester MA)
10/26/14 The Allyn Cox Reservation and Clam House Landing: The Archaeology of a Historic and Pre-Contact Site in Essex, Mass. (Essex County Greenbelt Association, Essex MA)
2015 Preserving Gloucester History: Treasures in Annisquam (Presentation to the Awesome Gloucester Foundation)
Awesome Dogtown: Cape Ann’s Premier Historical, Cultural and Natural Resource (Gloucester Historical commission, Gloucester MA)
10/7/15 A Native American Solar Observatory at Pole Hill (Endicott College, Beverly MA)
11/15/15 Masconomet’s People in the Contact Period (Essex Historical Society and Shipbuilding Museum, Essex MA)
Gloucester’s Happening History (Presentation to the Cape Ann Rotary Club, Gloucester MA)
Native Americans on Cape Ann Before the Contact Period (Daughters of the American Revolution, Gloucester MA)
4/12/16 Native Americans on Cape Ann During the Contact Period (Daughters of the American Revolution, Gloucester MA)
11/5/16 Cape Ann’s First People (O’Maley Innovation Middle School, Gloucester MA)
11/8/16 Native Americans on Cape Ann After the Contact Period (Daughters of the American Revolution, Gloucester MA)
12/8/16 The Archaeological Method (Glen Urquhart School, Beverly MA)
2017 Artists in Dogtown (Gloucester Historical Commission)
Prehistory of Cape Ann (Rockport High School)
Algonquian Places: What’s in a Name? (Rockport High School)
1/13/17 First Peoples of the Ipswich River Watershed (Ipswich River Watershed Association and the Ipswich Historical Society, Ipswich MA)
1/16/17 Cape Ann Algonquians’ First Encounter with Samuel de Champlain (MLK Day, Gloucester Meetinghouse Foundation, Gloucester MA)
1/27/17 Algonquians on the Ipswich River (Ipswich River Watershed Association and the Ipswich Historical Society, Ascension Memorial Church, Ipswich MA)
5/22/17 A Native American Village, Solar Observatory, and Ceremonial Landscape in Gloucester, MA (Beverly Library, Beverly MA)
5/24/2017 Wigwams on Jeffrey’s Creek (Brookwood School, Manchester MA)
6/20/17 First Peoples of Coastal Northern Essex County (Friends of the Parker River Wildlife Refuge, Newburyport MA)
10/12/17 Middleton in Masconomet’s Time (Middleton Historical Society, Middleton MA)
10/15/17 The Archaeology of Dogtown (Friends of Dogtown, Gloucester MA)
11/10/17 Topsfield in Masconomet’s Time (Topsfield Historical Society, Topsfield MA)
1/15/18 Pawtucket of Cape Ann in Colonial Times (MLK Day, Gloucester Meetinghouse Foundation, Gloucester MA)
1/18/18 Native Americans on the North Shore (Salem Explorer’s Club, Salem State University)
3/19/18 Algonquians on the Parker River and Plum Island (Friends of Parker River National Wildlife Refuge, Newburyport MA): https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MYwrOegpz9k
4/9/18 Ancient Artisans of the Parker River Watershed (Friends of the Parker River National Wildlife Refuge, Newburyport MA): https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Pg8R3FXeUus
4/14/18 Hamilton in Masconomet’s Time (Hamilton Historical Society, Hamilton-Wenham Library, Hamilton MA)
4/21/18 Gloucester Before 1900: Before Gloucester! (Cape Ann Museum, Gloucester MA)
5/24/18 North Reading in Masconomet’s Time (North Reading Historical and Antiquarian Society, North Reading MA)
6/27/18 Native Americans on Cape Ann (Rose Baker Senior Center, Gloucester MA)
7/18/18 Native Americans on the North Shore: Last Ice Age to the Contact Period (Explorers Lifelong Learning Institute of Salem State University, Salem MA)
7/29/18 Native American on the North Shore: Masconomet’s Time (Explorers Lifelong Learning Institute of Salem State University, Salem MA)
8/11/18 Algonquians of Old Newbury in the Contact Period (Sons and Daughters of Old Newbury, Newbury MA)
9/18/18 Native Americans of the Saco and Merrimack (Chocorua Lake Conservancy, Tamworth NH)
10/9/18 Algonquians on the Shawsheen and the Merrimack (Spade and Trowel Garden Club of Andover, Andover MA)
10/10/18 Native Americans on the North Shore in the Contact Period (Peabody Historical Society and Museum, Washington St., Peabody MA)
11/8/18 Native Americans on the Great Marsh (Great Marsh Symposium of the Essex County Greenbelt Association, Essex MA)
11/13/18 Algonquian Foodways and Medicinal Plants (North Shore Horticultural Society, Manchester MA)
1/15/19 Pawtucket of Cape Ann in Colonial Times (MLK Day, Gloucester Meetinghouse Foundation, Gloucester MA)
3/3/19 Algonquians of the Lower Merrimack Valley (Newburyport Public Library, Newburyport MA)
7/17/19 Algonquian Lifeways in the Lakes Region (Chocorua Conservancy, Tamworth NH)
10/25/19 Archaeology (Glen Urquhart School, Beverly MA)
11/24/19 Gloucester’s First Hundred Years: “The Indians Who Live Among Us” (Committee for Gloucester’s 400th, Meetinghouse, Gloucester MA)
2020 A Native Village in Riverview (Riverview Neighborhood Assn., Gloucester)
Algonquian Foodways and Medicinal Plants (Gloucester Lyceum and Sawyer Free Library, Gloucester MA): https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ir_RApGuJjU
1/15/20 Pennacook at Brooks (Brooks School, North Andover MA)
2/10/20 Salem’s Indigenous People between 3000 BP and the Present (Explorers Lifelong Learning Institute of Salem State University, Salem MA)
2/20/20 Wigwams on Sawmill Brook: Honoring the 375th Anniversary of Manchester-by-the-Sea (Manchester Historical Museum, Manchester MA): https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6ll782Kuas8
9/14/20 Algonquian Foodways and Medicinal Plants (Rockport Garden Club, Rockport)
11/12/20 Beverly’s Indigenous People (Montserrat College of Art, Beverly MA): https://youtu.be/rGdas9z3vis
4/8/21 Frontyard Growers: Algonquian Gardeners of Cape Ann (Backyard Growers, Gloucester MA)
5/21 Pawtucket on Plum Island Sound: The Moorehead Archaeological Survey (Friends of the Parker River Wildlife Refuge, Newburyport MA)
7/19/21 Rowley’s First People (Solstice Day School, Rowley MA)
10/2/21 Indigenous History of Choate Island and the Crane Estate, part 1 (Trustees of Reservations, Ipswich MA)
11/16/21 Indigenous History of Choate Island and the Crane Estate, part 2 (Trustees of Reservations, Ipswich MA)
11/18/21 Indigenous Peoples on the Castle Neck River (Essex County Greenbelt Association, Ipswich MA)
11/18/21 Indigenous Peoples of Ipswich (Ipswich Public Library, Ipswich MA)
1/22/22 History of Salt Island (Gloucester Lyceum and Sawyer Free Library, Gloucester MA)
1/26/22 Indigenous Peoples of Salem (Explorer’s Club, Salem MA)
3/24/22 Indigenous Peoples on Plum Island Sound (Friends of the Parker River National Wildlife Refuge, Newburyport MA)
4/9/22 Indigenous History of Essex County (Cape Ann Daughters of the American Revolution, Gloucester MA)
4/20/22 Indigenous Presence in Manchester-By-the-Sea (Manchester Historical Society and Museum, Manchester MA)
7/14/22 Indigenous Peoples of Ipswich (Ipswich Lyceum, Ipswich MA)
7/28/22 Indigenous Peoples of Sandy Bay (Sandy Bay Historical Society, Rockport MA)
7/20/22 Indigenous Peoples of Danvers (Danvers Historical Society, Danvers MA): https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCAOqSvGg6hA1kyLx9pRitbQ/videos.
8/17/22 King Philip’s War: What Is the Real Story? (Salem State University Explorers Club, Salem MA).
8/24/22 Algqonquian Foodways and Medicinal Plants (Ipswich Library, Ipswich MA)
9/10/22 Archaeology and Indigenous History of Dogtown (Jonathan Bayliss Society, Windhover, Gloucester MA)
9/28/22 Wigwam Hill and Five Indigenous Families with Ties to Ipswich (Parker River Wildlife Association, Newburyport MA, via Zoom)
10/16/22 Algonquian Spiritual Beliefs (First Universalist Church, Essex MA)
10/18/22 Indigenous Peoples of Rowley (Rowley MA Council on Aging)
10/20/22 Indigenous Peoples of Swampscott (Swampscott Historical Commission, Swampscott Historical Society, Swampscott Public Library)
10/24/22 Wigwams at Brookwood (Brookwood School, Manchester MA)
10/26/22 The History of Good Harbor (Town Green, Gloucester MA)
11/7/22 Indigenous Peoples of Beverly (Turtle Woods and Turtle Creek, Beverly MA)
11/17/22 Indigenous Peoples of Hamilton (Hamilton MA Council on Aging)
1/18/23 Indigenous Peoples of Manchester-by-the Sea (Manchester Rotary Club)
3/21/23 Selections from Indigenous History of Cape Ann (Writer’s Room, Boston MA, via Zoom)
3/25/23. Indigenous Skywatchers on Poles Hill: Archeoastronomy at an Ancient Observatory, William Waller’s Earth and Space Report: https://youtu.be/h218HU7olt0.
5/9/23 “The Indians Who Live Among Us”: Gloucester Selectmen’s Minutes, 1682, 1684 (Hammond Castle Museum, in association with Gloucester 400)
Readers of my works will find inconsistencies here and there. I apologize for them, but also recognize that history, like science, is a self-correcting process. You may notice different dates for events, for example, especially in the seventeenth century. One in particular I keep coming across when I reread my work is when John Endicott acquired land from the “Indians” on Cape Ann. He apparently made the actual deal in 1628 by our calendar, but in 1629 by the Puritan calendar, in which a year started on April 1 rather than on January 1, and in 1638 he wrote a letter about this deal to John Winthrop, who had arrived in 1630 to take over as governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. I’ve often conflated 1628 and 1638. Winthrop in turn reported on this to the General Court in 1642. To me what’s important is that between 1628 and 1638, Endicott had already purchased or leased “the hoed ground” wherever he found it, for future plantations. He also acquired Indigenous mines, such as the graphite mine in Sturbridge and the copper mine in Topsfield and also areas of marsh containing bog iron, with a view to future metallurgy. He also “bought” land around waterfalls with a view to future sawmill and gristmill operations. Our received histories tend to underplay the amount of actual planning that went into early colonization in Massachusetts.
Historical facts themselves, however recorded and by whom, often are not clear, and my later understandings may sometimes contradict earlier interpretations. One of those interpretations in particular has proven inimical to Indigenous interests. I have often stated that the Indigenous Peoples of Essex County did not have bounded sovereign territories. I did not, however, mean to imply they had no claim to their land. “Sovereignty” is a concept from European history that Indigenous Peoples have adopted by necessity in response to the Doctrine of Discovery. Indigenous Peoples had and have “Homelands” with fluid boundaries and diverse resources that they could and can share with others or not. There is no way to know now if the Pennacook-Pawtucket (and those at Pentucket, Agawam, Naumkeag, Wamesit, etc.) regarded Essex County as part of the Abenaki homeland N’dakinna.
There is also the matter of new evidence, such that things I learned in 2020 or 2022, for example, may not appear in things I wrote in 2013 or 2015. My amateur translations of Algonquian place names are a case in point, in which, for example, Agamenticus, means “beyond the small tidal river”, not “on the other side of the mountain on the tidal river”. See also revisions to “Agawam” and “Chebacco” I made in August 2023 based on corrections and new data offered by researcher Tom Beddall of Ipswich. This includes more accurate details on the locations of Masconomet’s residences and forts. I’m sure there are other instances. for example, I may also have claimed at one time that the Megaliths (formerly Agassiz Rock) in Manchester-by-the-Sea must have been man-made, but I was wrong about that. The Laurentide glacier tipped the boulders there and elsewhere at a known angle as it retreated. For unknown reasons Indigenous Peoples appear to have subsequently added rocks beneath them. I’ve agonized over my lapses as a scholar, but find I must press on. There is so much more to learn (and so little time left to me). I hope my inaccuracies will prove minor enough to not stand in the way of any reasonable test of “truth”.
Acknowledgements (as of July 2023)
I would like to thank the present and former directors and curators at the following institutions for their assistance with archival research and artifact collections: Patricia Capone, Michele Morgan, and Susan Haskell at the Harvard Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology in Cambridge; Marla Taylor and others at the R. S. Peabody Museum of Archaeology in Andover; the Massachusetts Archives and Commonwealth Museum in Boston (Stephen Kenney and others); Jon Patton of the Massachusetts Historical Commission; Will Phippen of the Peabody Essex Museum in Salem; David DeMello, Greg Lott, and Eric Lott at the Robbins Museum of Archaeology in Middleborough; Martha Oaks, Stephanie Buck, the late Fred Buck and Mary McCarl, Leon Doucette, Molly O’Hagan Hardy, Miranda Aisling, Trenton Carls, and Karla Caneb at the Cape Ann Museum in Gloucester; Lucianne Lavin at the Institute for American Indian Studies in Washington CT; Sarah Dunlap and other volunteers at the City of Gloucester Archives; Richard Trask of the Danvers Archive Center; Steve Harris, Holly Clay, Rob Russell, David McAveeney and others of the Annisquam Historical Society; Gwen Stephenson, Les Bartlett, Ingrid Brown, Randy Saville, and others at the Sandy Bay Historical Society in Rockport; Beth Welin and Susan Parker of the Manchester Historical Society; the Ipswich Museum; David Rhinelander, Robert Whitmarsh, Susan Morreale, and other members of the Gloucester Historical Commission; Tom Mikus, Mary Devaney, Monica Lawton, and other members of the Rockport Historical Commission; Dave McKenna and Laura Cilley of the Danvers Historical Society; the late Bradley Smith of the Patron’s Museum in Gloucester; research librarians at the Sawyer Free Library in Gloucester (Julie Travers and others), Rockport Public Library (Camilla Ayers), Beverly Public Library, and Ipswich Public Library (Nora Black); Bedford Town Historian Sharon McDonald; scholars Emerson (Tad) Baker and the late David Stewart-Smith; researchers Kristine Malpica, Wendy Frontiero, Justin Brown, and the late Pru Fish; and my research assistants Iris Bennett and Christina Lewis.
I had a lot of help over the years with archaeological reconnaissance, documentation, and field work. I especially thank my co-authors Mark Carlotto and Timothy Gondola; Frank Bellini, Sandy Barry, Jude Seminara, and Phil Schwartz of Gloucester; Peter Waksman of Rock Piles; John and Mary Gage of Stone Structures; Peter Cristofono of mindat.org; Nick Holland, Cindy Dunn, Matt Natti, and other members of the Cape Ann Trail Stewards; Martin Del Vecchio and the late Alan Stanish for fixed wing and drone photography; Tim Fohl and Kenneth C. Leonard; R. David Drucker and Frederick W. Martin; members of the Friends of Dogtown; members of the Friends of Pole Hill; Curtiss Hoffman, Vic Mastone, the late Ted Ballard, and other members of the Massachusetts Archaeological Society; Dianna Doucette and others of the Public Archaeology Laboratory in RI; John Ratti of the Essex Historical Society and Shipbuilding Museum; and most recently William Waller and David Tower for interest in continuing work on Poles Hill.
I would like to acknowledge as enthusiasts and contributors to my efforts: Linzee Coolidge, Tom Beddall, Vlardislav Kasarda, Jeff Crawford, Robert Williams, Anthony Fahrenwald, Bruce Piper, Jude Seminara, Matt Adams, Lisa Mehlin, Peter Van Demark, Cindy Keegan of Peabody, Richard Burrill, William Mueller, Bill and Peter Remsen, Edith Maxwell, Barbara Lambert, Anne Sterling, Susanna Wolfe, Su Hoyle, Michaela di Persia, Bill Bell of Manchester, Jay Frontiero, Izzy Tappan de Frees, Shep Abbott, James Masciarelli, Paul St. Germain, James McDougall, Allie Theriault, Sam Bishop, Linda Freedman, Jane Tucker, Justin Brown, the late Gardner Winchester II and Riverview Road residents William Lahey, Bob Goodman, Leslie Nicholson, and others; and artifact collectors Tom Ellis, Peter Parsons, Jackie Jamieson, Hank McCarl, Sarah Wester, Liz Rice-Smith, Lindsey Bardsley, Al Scott, Alan Foucault, Peter Dion, Michael Prince, Marietta Delahant, Tom Halsted, Steve Simonetti, James MacDougall, Jim Oliver, Alan Smith, Jonathan Hudgins, Jim Dudley, Derek James of Salem, William Cross, Lindsey Bardsley, Mark Woodbury, Christina Lewis, and the late Judy Juncker of Annisquam; and members of the New England/Northeast Native American Artifacts, Arrowheads, and Implements Facebook group. I’m sure I’ve forgotten others–my apologies!
For editorial assistance in reviewing and publishing my papers and essays, I especially thank Curtiss Hoffman, emeritus of Bridgewater State University, and Ryan Wheeler of the Peabody Institute of Archaeology in Andover, former editors of the Bulletin of the Massachusetts Archaeological Society; reviewers Jordan Kerber, the late Tanya Largy, Vic Mastone, and others, and co-authors Mark Carlotto and Timothy Gondola; reviewers Doug Schwartz, Greg Parris, and Harvey Buford of NEARA Journal (the New England Antiquities Research Association), also Peter Anick, David Weed, and Anne Marie Kittredge; correspondents Jack Hauck, Bruce Bolnick, Mari Martin, Deahn LeBlang, Tim Simmons, Ose Schwab, Robert Gerzon, Howard Williams, Kenneth Feder, Edward Gerrish Mair, Malcolm Taylor, and others; and authors Elizabeth Waugh and Austin Whittall.
For my work on human migration to the Americas, I am indebted to Bruce Bradley, Michael Collins, Tom Dillehay, Albert Goodyear, Ted Goebel, Michael Waters, Dennis O’Rourke, Kelly Graf, Richard Gramly, John Hoffecker, Stephen Loring, Jonathan Lothrop, Darrin Lowery, Arthur Spiess, Curtis Runnels, and Jennifer Raff for their generous assistance. For publishing my work I also thank Bing McGilvary and the late Peter Anastas, editors of Enduring Gloucester; Gordon Harris, Ipswich Town Historian and author/editor of Historic Ipswich; Michael Downes of Devon, England, editor of Conant 400; Susan Beattie, Joe Rukeyser, Susan Moran, Dick Prouty, and Janet Parsons of the Cape Ann Slavery and Abolition Trust, publishers of capeannslavery.org, and my co-author Stephanie Buck; and Bonnie Hurd Smith and Juno Lamb, editors of the Newsletter of the Chocorua Lake Conservancy.
Thanks also to Sarah Shemkus of Northshore Magazine; Ray Lamont of the Gloucester Daily Times; Erika Brown of the Manchester Cricket, Mila Barry of The Gillnetter; Joey Ciaramitaro of Good Morning Gloucester; Bill Plante of New Media Associates; Erich Archer, Becky Tober, Kory Cucuru, and Lisa Smith of 1623 Studios, radio hosts Jay Foss of Northshore 104.9FM and Mary Jacobson of 96.3FM; and Chris Munkholm of the Cape Ann Cosmos. The publication of this web site, capeannhistory.org, was made possible through the encouragement and assistance of Stevens Brosnihan of Gloucester and Justin Brown of Ipswich.
I am indebted to Indigenous individuals and groups who have found a way to trust me with information and advice about my research and writings. I especially thank Burne Stanley-Peters, Dawn Duncan (Tolba Menahan Powwow), Anthony, and others at the Massachusetts Center for Native American Awareness in Danvers; Gill Solomon, Thomas Green, and others of the Ponkapoag Band of Massachuset; Linda Coombs and Annawon Weeden of the Aquinnah and Mashpee Wampanoag Tribes respectively; Carol Dana of Indian Island in Penobscot, Maine; Cheryl Toney Holley of the Hassanamisco Nipmuc in Grafton; Paul and Denise Pouliot of the Cowasuck Band of the Pennacook-Abenaki and the INHCC (Indigenous New Hampshire Collaborative Collective); Rich Holschuh of the Elnu Abenaki and Atowi Project; Margaret Bruchac of the University of Pennsylvania; Dr. Frank Waabu O’Brien of the Aquidneck Indian Council; the late Robert Knox “Kunnaway” Turner Jr. and Brenda “Evening birdwoman” Jordan-Turner of the New Hampshire Intertribal Council; and Nohham R. Cachat-Schilling (“Sasachiminesh”) and Miles Tardie of the Massachusetts Ethical Archaeology Society.
I would also like to thank the educators who requested information for their students or invited me to their classrooms to share my knowledge with students, especially Christine Draper of the Glen Urquhart School in Beverly; Kerry Herrmann of the Rockport High School; Heidi McGrath of the O’Maley Innovation Middle School; Jay Di Prima of Gloucester High School; Tess Hosman of East Gloucester School; teachers at West Parish School in Gloucester; Nick Beaudoin and Lindsey McGovern at Solstice Day School in Rowley; Lindsay Banks of Landmark School in Prides Crossing; Maile Black of Brookwood School in Manchester; Scott Spencer of Winchester High School; Susanna Waters and Amanda Nasser of Brooks School in North Andover; Alexandra Kirby of Salem High School; Vidula Plante at the Manchester-Essex Middle School; Joel Hariton, Kathy Smith and others of the Ipswich River Wildlife Sanctuary; Donald Zaik, Jessica Cook, and others at the Salem State University Explorers Lifelong Learning Institute; Mel Sellick of Endicott College; Nathan Lewis and Ethan Berry at Montserrat College of Art in Beverly; Brett Powers at the Breakheart Reservation in Saugus; Amelia Wyler at Waring School; and Peter Quimby and Karen Gold of Governor’s Academy in Byfield.
I also had the pleasure of giving presentations or providing information to members of the Essex County Greenbelt Association (Ed Becker, Kate Bowdich, and Jane Rumrill); the Trustees of Reservations (Alison Bassett, Valerie Perini and others); the John F. Kennedy Presidential Library (Laura Kintz); the Gloucester Lyceum (Mary Weissblum); Gloucester 400+ (Linn Parisi, Isabel Pett, Ruth Pino, and others); Babson Historical Association (Amanda Babson and others); Jonathan Bayliss Society (Catherine Bayliss); Friends of the Parker River Wildlife Association (Theodore Olsson); Gloucester Writer’s Center (Henry Ferrini and others); Daughters of the American Revolution (Elizabeth Barry and others); Hammond Castle Museum (Jim Craig); the Association for Gravestone Studies/Burial Grounds of Native Americans; the central, northeast, and southeast chapters of the Massachusetts Archaeological Society (Curtiss Hoffman, David Burbine, Richard Miller, and others), Massachusetts Audubon Society (Chris Leahy, David Moon); Essex National Heritage Commission (Beth Beringer); Sons and Daughters of the First Settlers of Newbury MA (Susan Gagnon); PEO [Philanthropic Educational Organization] International of Newburyport (Jeanne Spellman); Swampscott Racial Justice Action Group (Aaron Berdorfe); Swampscott Historical Society (Nancy Schultz, Molly Connor, Jonathan Leamon); Hamilton-Wenham Human Rights Commission (Anna Siedzik); Rockport Garden Club; Manchester Horticultural Society; Backyard Growers in Gloucester; the Chocorua Lake Conservancy (Bonnie Hurd Smith, Juno Lamb, Mary Cronin); Climate Arts Festival (Patricia Rosenblatt); Massachusetts Council of Aging in Rowley and Hamilton (Tim Morris); 2019 Great Marsh Symposium (Great Marsh Coalition, Ed Becker); Eastern States Archaeological Federation (Emmet Wiegard); Meetinghouse Foundation (Charles Nazarian); Town Green (Maureen Aylward, Dick Prouty); Parker River National Wildlife Refuge (Kate Murray, Bill Peterson, Matt Poole); U.S. Astronomy Education Clearinghouse, Earth and Science Reports (Bill Waller, David Tower); Turtle Woods and Turtle Creek in Beverly (JoAnn Daigle); First Universalist Church of Essex (Rebecca Axelrod); Ipswich Public Library (Stephen Lajoie); Ipswich Historical Society; Beverly Public Library (Robin Flynn); Groveland Historical Society (Nancy Webster); Essex Historical Society and Shipbuilding Museum; Hamilton Historical Society; North Reading Historical and Antiquarian Society (Tom Parker); Topsfield Historical Society (Norman Isler, William Whiting); Marblehead Racial Justice Team (Lou Meyi); Retired Educators Association of Massachusetts (Duncan Maitland, Frank Bernstein); Hope Community Church (Tanya Burne); Rose Baker Senior Center in Gloucester; Rotary Club of Gloucester; Rocky Neck Book Club (Betty Pijut); Hammond Castle Museum (James Craig, Beth Welin); Indigenous Heritage Film Festival (Thom Padick, Joan Flynn, Stan Franzeen), and I’m sure I’ve forgotten something here–again my apologies.
Finally, I want to give special thanks to my family (my daughter Lara Lepionka and her husband Steve, my granddaughters Willa; my sister Bev (Taunyee) Robbins, my nieces and nephew Anna and Matt MacLellan and Robin Menzies and their families, and Franz and Alexandra Lepionka, and their families); and to personal friends Yvonne and Donnie Fisher of late, Jane Manley, Gail Fenske and Don Cecich, Susan Erony and Jay, Sandra and Bob Williams, Wendy and Diana Pierson, Noel Mann and Daan Sandee, and Stephanie Buck) for their steadfast encouragement.
Bibliography for Indigenous History of Essex County, Massachusetts
©Mary Ellen Lepionka (Last updated April 2023 but still incomplete)
This bibliography reflects most of my work to date, which I have presented in published articles and essays, papers given at meetings, and slide lectures prepared for schools, civic organizations, and cultural institutions. The bibliography is long because:
- It reflects 12 years of intensive research using both primary and secondary sources.
- It is geographically inclusive, as most present-day political divisions did not exist in the time under study.
- It is intellectually inclusive, as I consulted many relevant sciences and fields of study (e.g., geology, archaeology, anthropology, cultural geography, ethnohistory, historical linguistics, etc.)
- It is evidence-based, and I have sought to corroborate all the physical evidence I have studied or surveyed.
- It aims to be culturally inclusive; I have sought input from Indigenous historians, tribal leaders, authors, and literatures in hopes of accurately representing Indigenous knowledge, perspectives, and memories.
Abbott, Abiel, 1829 History of Andover: From Its Settlement to 1829. Flagg and Gould, Andover MA.
Abbott, Gordon, Jr., 2003 Jeffrey’s Creek: A Story of People, Places and Events in the Town That Came to Be Known as Manchester-By-The-Sea. Manchester (MA) Historical Society.
Abbott, K. M., 1904 Old Paths and Legends, Gloucester 1639-1873: 175-185, Phillips Library, Peabody Essex Museum, Salem, MA.
Abbott, R. Tucker, 2014 Seashells of North America: A Guide to Field Identification. Macmillan, New York.
Abenakis Band Council of Odanak: https://caodanak.com/en/.
Abenaki Nation of Missisquoi, Swanton VT: https://www.abenakination.com/.
Abrams, Marc D., Gregory J. Nowacki, and Brice B. Hanberry, 2022 Oak Forests and Woodlands as Indigenous Landscapes in the Eastern United States. Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society 149 (2): 101-121.
Access Genealogy, Pennacook Indian History: http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/.
Aceituno, F.J. & S. Rojas-Mora, 2015 Lithic technology studies in Colombia during the Late Pleistocene and Early Holocene, Chungara, Revista de Antropología Chilena 47 (1): 13-23.
Achilli, Alessandro, Ugo A. Perego, Claudio M. Bravi, Michael D. Coble, Qing-Peng Kong, Scott R. Woodland, Antonio Salas, Antonio Torroni, and Hans-Jürgen Bandelt, 2008 The phylogeny of the four Pan-American mtDNA Haplographs: Implications for evolutionary and disease studies. PLoS ONE 3 (3): e1764.
Ackerman, Arthur W., 1929 Reverend John White of Dorchester, England, and his participation in founding the Massachusetts Bay Colony, The Governor and Company of Massachusetts Bay in New England, Boston.
Adachi N, Shinoda K-i, K. Umetsu and H. Matsumura, 2009 Mitochondrial DNA analysis of Jomon skeletons from the Funadomari site, Hokkaido, and its implication for the origins of Native American. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 138 (3): 255-265.
Adams, Charles Francis, 1883 The New English Canaan of Thomas Morton (1575-1647), The Prince Society, Boston.
Adams, Herbert B., 1882 The Fisher Plantation of Cape Anne, and Origin of Salem Plantation and Old Depositions relating to Old Planters, Historical Collections of the Essex Institute: 13: 136, 19: 153 (Salem, MA).
Adams, James Ring, 2015 Alien Abduction: How the Abenaki Discovered England, American Indian Magazine 16 (3): https://www.americanindianmagazine.org/story/alien-abductions-how-abenaki-discovered-england.
Adney, E. Tappan, 1942-1947 Notes and Letters to Frank G. Speck on language. Papers of Frank G. Speck. E-44, Box 11 and Box 12. Phillips Library, Peabody Essex Museum, Salem, MA.
1964 The Bark Canoes and Skin Boats of North America (Howard I. Chappelle, ed.). Bulletin of the United States National Museum, Washington, DC.
Adovasio, J.M., J. Donahue, D. R. Pedler and R. Stuckenrath, 1999 Two Decades of Debate on Meadowcroft Rockshelter. North American Archaeologist 19 (4): 317-341.
Adovasio J.M. and Pedler D.R., 2014 Peopling of the Americas. In Smith C. (ed), Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology. Springer, New York, NY.
Agaki, Roy H., 1924 The Town Proprietors of the New England Colonies, Peter Smith, Gloucester MA: https://archive.org/details/townproprietorso00akag.
Ahern, J. J., 2008. A Guide to the Frank Gouldsmith Speck, 1881-1950 Papers, 1925-1937. University of Pennsylvania Archives and Record Center: https://archives.upenn.edu/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/upt50s741.pdf.
Alden, Andrew, 2010 Massachusetts Geologic Map. About.com Guide: http://geology.about.com/od/maps/ig/stategeomaps/MAgeomap.htm
Algonquian East Family Tree DNA project on Facebook.
Allen, David G., 2014 Vacuum Domicilium: The Social and Cultural Landscape of Seventeenth Century New England; The First Official Frontier in Massachusetts: http://memorialhall.mass.edu/classroom/curriculum_12th/unit1/lesson2/allen.html.
Allen, David Y., 2005 French Mapping of New York and New England 1604-1760. Stony Brook University, NY.
Allen family of Manchester. In George Francis Dow, ed., Essex Institute Historical Collections 24: 223, 302; 25:44, 27: 31.
Allen, Wilkes, 1820 The history of Chelmsford, from its origin in 1653, to the year 1820–together with an historical sketch of the church, and biographical notices of the four first pastors. To which is added a memoir of the Pawtuckett tribe of Indians. With a large appendix, P. N. Green, Haverhill MA.
Allen, Victor T. and W. D. Johns, 1960 Clays and Clay Minerals of New England and Eastern Canada, Geological Society of America Bulletin 71 (1), pp. 75-86.
American Antiquarian Society, 1992 Council for New England Records 1622-1623, American Antiquarian Society Folio Vol. C. http://www.americanantiquarian.org/Findingaids/council_for_new_england.pdf.
American Philosophical Society. Frank G. Speck Papers 1903-1950. Mss. Ms. Coll. 126: http://www.amphilsoc.org/library.
American Statistical Association, 1847 Index of Indian Names for Towns, Volume 1 in Collections of the American Statistical Association Volume 1; see also American Statistical Association Collections, Series I, IV: 199; 208-214, Massachusetts Historical Society Collections, Boston MA.
Amoskeag Fishways, Manchester NH: http://www.amoskeagfishways.org/.
Ancestry.com, Roots Surname Database.
Ancient Origins, 2014 Chinampas: The Floating Gardens of Mexico: http://www.ancient-origins.net/ancient-places-americas/chinampas-floating-gardens-mexico-001537.
Anderson, A. D., ed., 1975 The Cooperton Mammoth: An Early Man Bone Quarry, Great Plains Journal 14 (2):130- 173.
Anderson, David G., Thaddeus G. Bissett, and Stephen J. Yerka, 2013 The Late-Pleistocene Human Settlement of Interior North America: The Role of Physiography and Sea-Level Change: Anderson et al 2013 PDF.
Anderson, David G., M. Ashley, M. Smallwood, and D. Shane Miller, 2015 Pleistocene human settlement in the southeastern United States: Current evidence and future directions. PaleoAmerica 1 (1): 7-51.
Anderson, David G., 1995 Paleoindian Interaction Networks in the Eastern Woodlands. In Michael Nassaney and Kenneth Sassaman, eds., Native American Interactions: Multiscalar Analysis and Interpretations in the Eastern Woodlands, University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville TN.
Anderson, Fred and Andrew Clayton, 2005 Champlain’s Legacy: The Transformation of Seventeenth-Century North America, in The Dominion of War: Empire and Liberty in North America, 1500-2000, Penguin, NY.
Anderson, G. Robert, 1996 Descendants of William and Mary (Tybott) Haskell, in Colonial Massachusetts and Maine Genealogies: https://www.americanancestors.org/publications/great-migration-study-project.
Anderson, Rasmus B., 1877 America Not Discovered by Columbus, Griggs and Company, Chicago; in archive.org.
Anderson, Robert Charles, 1995 The Great Migration Begins: Immigrants to New England, 1620-1633, Vol. 1. New England Historic Genealogical Society, Boston MA.
Anderson, Virginia DeJohn, 1994 King Philip’s Herds: Indians, Colonists, and the Problem of Livestock in Early New England, The William and Mary Quarterly, Third Series, 51 (4): 601-624. Omohundro Institute of Early American History and Culture: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2946921.
Andrews, Charles McLean, 1934 The Colonial Period of American History, 4 vols, Yale University Press, New Haven CT.
Andrews, H. F., 1906 List of Freemen, Massachusetts Bay Colony 1630-1691, with the Freeman’s Oath, the first paper printed in New England. Exira Printing Co. https://archive.org/details/listoffreemenmas00andr.
Andrews, J. Clinton, 1986 Indian fish and fishing off coastal Massachusetts. Bulletin of the Massachusetts Archaeological Society 47 (2), 42-46.
Andrews, Kenneth R., 1984 Trade, Plunder, and Settlement: Maritime Enterprise and the Genesis of the British Empire, 1480–1630. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge UK.
Andros, Richard Salter Storrs, 1838 Chocorua and Other Sketches. Fall River, MA: W. Canfield & Co.
Antevs, Ernst V., 1922 The recession of the last ice sheet in New England. American Geographical Society Research Series No. 11, American Geographical Society, NY.
Archive of Early American Images and Maps Collection. John Carter Brown Library, Brown University, Providence RI: http://jcb.lunaimaging.com/luna/servlet/JCBMAPS~1~1.
Ardelean, C.F., Becerra-Valdivia, L., Pedersen, M.W. et al. Evidence of human occupation in Mexico around the Last Glacial Maximum. Nature 584, 87–92 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2509-0: accessed 7/21/20.
Arnold, David, 1996 The Problem of Nature: Environment, Culture, and European Expansion, Blackwell Publishers, Oxford UK.
Arnold, Henry N., 1969 Arnold Spring Rock Shelter, Bulletin of the Massachusetts Archaeological Society 30 (2): 1-4.
Arrington, Benjamin F., 1922 Municipal history of Essex County in Massachusetts, Vol. I, Lewis Historical Publishing Company, NY.
Arppe, Laura, Juha A. Karhu, Sergey Vartanyan, Dorothée G. Drucker, Heli Etu-Sihvola, Hervé Bocherens, 2019 Thriving or surviving? The isotopic record of the Wrangel Island woolly mammoth population. Quaternary Science Reviews, 2019; 222: DOI: 10.1016/j.quascirev.2019.105884.
Astakhov, V. I., 2006 Evidence of Late Pleistocene ice-dammed lakes in west Siberia. Boreas 35: 607–621.
2013a Pleistocene glaciations of northern Russia: A modern view. Boreas 42 (1): 1-24.
2013b The postglacial Pleistocene of the northern Russian mainland. Quaternary Science Reviews 92: 388-408.
Aubery, Fr. Joseph, 1715  French Abenaki Dictionary, translated into English by Stephen Laurent and published as Father Aubery’s French Abenaki Dictionary (Chisholm Bros. Publishing, Portland, Maine).
Auerbach, B.M., 2012 Skeletal variation among early Holocene North American humans: Implications for origins and diversity in the Americas. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 149 (4): 525-536.
Austin, Jane Godwin, 1889 Standish of Standish, Houghton, Boston MA.
Aveni, Anthony, 1980 Skywatchers of Ancient Mexico. University of Texas Press, Austin, TX.
2008 People and the Sky, Thames & Hudson, London.
Axtell, James, 1974 The Vengeful Women of Marblehead: Robert Roule’s Deposition of 1677, The William and Mary Quarterly 3rd. Ser., 31: 650–652.
1988 At the Water’s Edge: Trading in the Sixteenth Century, in James Axtell After Columbus: Essays in the Ethnohistory of Colonial North America: 144-181, Oxford University Press, NY.
Babson, John James, 1860 History of the Town of Gloucester, Cape Ann: Including the Town of Rockport, Samuel Chandler, Procter Brothers, Gloucester MA.
1891 Notes and additions to the history of Gloucester…Gloucester, Mass. M. V. B. Perley, Telegraph Office: https://archive.org/details/notesadditionsto00babs.
Bae, Christopher J., Daterina Douka, and Michael D. Petraglia, 2017 On the origin of modern humans: Asian perspectives. Science 358 (6368): 9067: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29217544/.
Bahn, P. G., 1998 “Cueva de las Manos,” in Cambridge Illustrated History of Prehistoric Art. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
Bailey, Sarah Loring, 1880 Historical Sketches of Andover, Houghton Mifflin and Company, Boston, MA: https://archive.org/details/historicalsketch00bail.
Bailyn, Bernard, 1955 New England Merchants in the Seventeenth Century, Harvard University Press, Cambridge MA.
Baker, Emerson W., 2004 Finding the Almouchiquois: Native American Families, Territories, and Land Sales in Southern Maine, Ethnohistory Vol. 51, No. 1: 73-100.
Baker, Emerson W., Edwin A. Churchill, Edwin A., Richard S. D’Abate, Kristine L. Jones, Victor A. Konrad, and Harald E.L. Prins, eds., 1994 American beginnings: Exploration, culture, and cartography in the land of Norumbega. University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln NE.
Baker, S., R. Boisvert, J.D. Eusden, N. Hamilton, and S. Pollock, 2017 The New Hampshire Spherulitic Rhyolites: Rocks of Importance to Prehistoric Native Americans. In Johnson, B. and Eusden, J.D., eds., Guidebook for Field Trips in Western Maine and Northern New Hampshire (New England Intercollegiate Geological Conference, Bates College, Lewiston, Maine), pp. 305.
Baker, William A., 1973 A maritime history of Bath, Maine and the Kennebec River region. Marine Research Society of Bath.
Ball, Sydney H., 1941 The Mining of Gems and Ornamental Stones by Native Americans, Bureau of Amerian Ethnology Bulletin No. 128, Anthropological Papers, No. 13 (Smithsonian Institution): https://repository.si.edu/bitstream/handle/10088/22061/bae_bulletin_128_1941_13_1-77.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y.
Ballard, Edwin C., 1999 For Want of a Nail: An Analysis of the Function of Some Horseshoe or U-Shaped Stone Structures. Bulletin of the Massachusetts Archaeological Society 60 (2): 38-53.
Ballard, Edwin C. and James W. Mavor, Jr., 2006 Case for the use of above surface stone constructs in a Native American ceremonial landscape in the Northeast. NEARA Journal 40 (1): 33-45.
Bamforth, Douglas B. and Ronald I. Dorn, 1988 On the Nature and Antiquity of the Manix Lake Industry, Journal of California and Great Basin Anthropology 10 (2): 209-226: http://www.public.asu.edu/~atrid/BamforthDorn_1988.pdf.
Banks, Charles Edward, 1930 The Planters of the Commonwealth, Genealogical Society Co., NY.
Banks, Charles Edward and E. E. Brownell, eds., 1957 Topographical Dictionary of 2885 English Emigrants to New England 1620-1650. Southern Book Company, Baltimore MD.
Banner, Stuart, 2009 How the Indians Lost Their Land: Law and Power on the Frontier. Harvard University Press, Cambridge MA.
Barber, John Warner, 1839 Historical Collections: Being a general collection of interesting facts, traditions biographical sketches, anecdotes, etc., relating to the history and antiquities of every town in Massachusetts. Dorr Howland & Co., Worcester, MA: in the digital collection at www.memorialhall.mass.edu.
1983 Algonquian Burial. Historical collections: being a general collection of interesting facts, traditions, biographical sketches, anecdotes, c., relating to the history and antiquities of every town in Massachusetts, with geographical descriptions, Dorr Howland Co., Worcester MA: http://cdm.reed.edu/cdm4/item_viewer.php?CISOROOT=/colhist&CISOPTR=263&CISOBOX=1&REC=2.
Barber, R., 1981 Quartz Technology in Prehistoric New England, Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA.
1982 The Wheeler’s Site: A specialized shellfish processing station on the Merrimack River. Peabody Museum Monograph 7. Harvard University, Cambridge MA.
Barker, Joanne, 2011 Native Acts: Law, Recognition, and Cultural Authenticity, Duke University Press, Durham NC.
Barnard, H. & Jelmer W. Eerkens, eds., 2007 Theory and Practice of Archaeology Residue Analysis. Volume 1650, British Archaeological Reports. Archaeopress (University of Michigan).
Barnes, Geraldine, 2001 Viking America: the First Millennium, D.S. Brewer, Martlesham, Suffolk, England.
Barrett, Stephen, Thomas W. Swetnam, and William L. Baker, 2005 Indian Fire Use: Deflating the Legend. Fire Management Today 65 (3): 31-34. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/228116861_Indian_fire_use_deflating_the_legend.
Barron, David P. & Sharon Mason, 1994 The Greater Gungywamp: A Guidebook. Gungywamp Society, Groton, CT.
Barry, John Stetson, 1855 The History of Massachusetts, Vol. 1. Phillips, Sampson and Company, Boston MA.
Bartlett (NH) Historical Society, Beginnings: Paleoindians to the Abenakis: http://www.bartletthistory.org/bartletthistory/index.htm.
Bartlett, Joseph Gardner, 1907 New England Historical and Genealogical Register 61, New England Historic Genealogical Society, Boston MA.
Battaglia V., V. Grugni, U.A. Perego, N. Angerhofer, and J.E. Gomez-Palmieri, 2013 The First Peopling of South America: New Evidence from Y-Chromosome Haplogroup Q. PLoS ONE 8 (8): e71390.
Battis, Edward C., 1905 Piracy in colonial times, in George Francis Dow, ed., Essex Institute Historical Collections 1: 78, 82, 83, 136; 34: 41.
Baxter, James Phinney, ed., 1884 Sir Ferdinando Gorges and his Province of Maine. 3 vols. Hoyt, Fogg, and Donham, Portland ME. (Reprinted in 1890 as The Life and Letters of Sir Ferdinando Gorges. Boston, MA: Prince Society Publications, 18-20.
1893 Christopher Levett of York: The Pioneer Colonist in Casco Bay. The Gorges Society, Portland ME.
1906 A Memoir of Jacques Cartier: Sieur de Limoilou, His Voyages to the St. Lawrence, a Bibliography and a Facsimile of the Manuscript of 1534. Dodd, Mead and Company, NY.
Baylies, Francis, 1830 A Historical Memoir of the Colony of New Plymouth (Chapter 7 is on Wessagusset), Hilliard, Gray, Little, and Wilkins, Boston MA.
1866 An Historical Memoir of the Colony of New Plymouth, with corrections and additions by Samuel G. Drake, Vols. I and II, Boston, MA: https://archive.org/details/historicalmemoir01bayl.
Beals, Charles Edward, Jr., 1916 Passaconaway in the White Mountains, R. G. Badger, Boston MA.
Beaver, Daniel C., 2011 Politics in the Archives: Records, Property and Plantation Politics in Massachusetts Bay, 1642-1650, Journal of Early American History 1: 3-25.
Becerra-Valdivia, Lorena, Michael P. Waters, Thomas W. Stafford Jr., Sarah L. Anzick, Daniel Comeskey, Thibaut Devièse, and Thomas Higham, 2018 Reassessing the chronology of the archaeological site of Anzick. PNAS 115 (27): 7000-7003.
Becerra-Valdivis and Thomas Higham, 2020 The timing and effect of the earliest human arrivals in North America: www.Nature.com (doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2491-6).
Beck, Charlotte and George T. Jones, 1997 The Terminal Pleistocene/Early Holocene archaeology of the Great Basin, Journal of World Prehistory 11 (2): 191.
2010 Clovis and Western Stemmed: Population Migration at the Meeting of Two Technologies in the Inter-Mountain West. American Antiquity 75 (1): 81-116.
Beck, Horace P., 1959 The American Indian as a Sea-Fighter in Colonial Times, The Marine Historical Association, Mystic CT.
Beck, Sanderson, 2006 New England Confederation 1643-1664: http://www.san.beck.org/11-5-Colonies1643-64.html#2; New England and Metacom’s War 1664-1677: http://www.san.beck.org/11-7-NewEngland1664-1744.html#1.
Becker, Marshall C., 2017 A Wampum Basket from New England: Discovery of an Account Providing Verification of an Oral Tradition, Bulletin of the Massachusetts Archaeological Society 78 (1): 1-24.
Beddall, Thomas, 2014 Personal Communications about LeBaron’s Archaeological Map, Masconomet’s deeds, Choate Island, Castle Neck, Wigwam Hill, Argilla Farm, and other Agawam locations, July 13, 2014, in Gloucester, MA; August and September 2014 in Ipswich, MA.
Beers, D.B., 1872 Atlas of Essex County, Massachusetts: https://wardmapsgifts.com/collections/atlas-of-essex-county-massachusetts-1872.
Behne, Tom, ed., 2010 Travel journals of Tappan Adney Vol. 1, 1887-1890 and Vol. 2, 1891-1896, Goose Lane Editions, Fredericton, NB.
Belanger, Joseph, 2008 The Early Archaic Period in New Hampshire: A Review of the Literature, The New Hampshire Archaeologist 48 (1): 45-56.
Belknap, Jeremy, 1831 The History of New Hampshire, Volume I. Boston: S. C. Stevens & Ela & Wadleigh.
Bell, Edward L., 2009 Cultural resources on the New England coast and continental shelf: Research, regulatory, and ethical considerations from a Massachusetts perspective, Coastal Management 37:17-53.
2013 Discerning Native Placemaking: Archaeologies and Histories of the Den Rock Area, Lawrence and Andover, Massachusetts, Bulletin of the Archaeological Society of Connecticut 75: 69-101.
Bellini, Frank X., 2019 A Report on the Geology of Pole Hill, Gloucester, MA to Support Archeological Investigations (Unpublished paper, May 2019, filed with Mary Ellen Lepionka, principal investigator of the Poles Hill (Sunset Hill) site; see Lepionka and Carlotto (2015).
Benner, Dana, 2010 Kancamagus led Pennacook uprisings against English encroachment, The Telegraph (NH.com).
Bennett, Casey C. and Frederika A. Kaestle, 2010 Investigation of Ancient DNA from Western Siberia and the Sargat Culture. Human Biology 82 (2): 143-156: http://digitalcommons.wayne.edu/humbiol/vol82/iss2/2.
Bennett, M. K., 1955 The food economy of the New England Indians, 1605-1675, Journal of Political Economy 63(5): 369-397.
Bent, Allen H., 1926 The Bent Family in America. Being mainly a genealogy of the descendants of John Bent who settled in Sudbury, Mass., in 1638 with notes upon the family in England and elsewhere, D. Clapp & Son, Boston MA: http://archive.org/stream/bentfamilyinamer00bent#page/n7/mode/2up.
Bentley, William. Joseph G. Waters, Marguerite Dalrymple, and Alice G. Waters, eds., 1914 The Diary of William Bentley: Pastor of the East Church, Salem, Massachusetts, The Essex Institute, Salem MA.
Betz, Virginia M., 2002 Early plant domestication in Mesoamerica. Athena Review 2 (1): 24-31.
Best, Clive, 2014 The straw that broke the camel’s back: Bathymetry of the Arctic Ocean, courtesy NOAA: http://clivebest.com/blog/?p=5886.
Binford, Lewis R., 1980 Willow Smoke and Dogs’ Tails: Hunter-Gatherer Settlement Systems and Archaeological Site Formation, American Antiquity 45 (1): 4-20.
Bird, Broxton W., J.J. Wilson, J. Escobar, G.D. Kamenov, H.J. Pollard, G.W. Monagh, 2019 Pre-Columbian lead pollution from Native American galena processing and land use in the midcontinental United States. Geology, 2019; DOI: 10.1130/G46673.1
Bishop, John Leander, Edwin Troxell Freedley, and Edward Young, 1864 A History of American Manufacturers, from 1608 to 1860: Exhibiting … Comprising Annals of the Industry of the United States in Machinery, Manufactures and Useful Arts, with a Notice of the Important Inventions, Tariffs, and the Results of Each Decennial Census, Volume 1, Young & Company, Philadelphia PA: https://archive.org/details/historyofamerica01bishuoft.
Bishop, Morris, 1948 Samuel de Champlain: The Life of Fortitude. Knopf, NY.
Bjerck, Hein B., 2000 Stone Age settlement on Svalbard?: A Reevaluation of previous finds and the results of a recent field survey. Polar Record 36 (197): 97-112.
Blancke, Shirley and John Peters Slow Turtle, 1996 Indigenous People’s Control Over and Contribution to Archaeology in the United States, Bulletin of the Massachusetts Archaeological Society 57 (2): 64-68.
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